Singapore Ratifies Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol
Move will reduce Singapore's greenhouse gas emissions arising from HFC consumption and support our net zero ambition
9 June 2022 – Singapore has ratified the Kigali Amendment (KA) to the Montreal Protocol to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and support our net zero emissions ambition.
2 Since 1989, Singapore has been a Party to the Montreal Protocol, an international treaty to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the use of ozone-depleting substances. However, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which are substitutes for these ozone-depleting substances, are potent greenhouse gases that contribute significantly to global warming. Hence, the KA to the Montreal Protocol was introduced to reduce the global consumption and production of HFCs.
3 HFCs are commonly used as refrigerants in refrigeration and air-conditioning (RAC) equipment. For example, the typical refrigerant used in chillers has a global warming potential (GWP) of 1,300.
4 Singapore will phase down the consumption of HFCs by 80 per cent over the next two decades to meet the obligations of the KA1. The National Environment Agency (NEA) has introduced measures to support the industry to shift towards more climate-friendly alternatives. Since 1 January 2019, HFCs imported into Singapore have been subjected to licensing controls. In 2020, a Low-GWP Refrigerants Chillers (LRC) grant was introduced to support companies that want to make an early switch to climate-friendly water-cooled chillers.
5 In addition, regulations to mitigate HFC emissions will come into effect on 1 October 2022 under the Environmental Protection and Management Act. These regulations aim to shift the market towards more climate-friendly RAC technologies and equipment, require the proper handling of refrigerants during servicing works, and mandate the collection and proper treatment of spent refrigerants from decommissioned RAC equipment.
6 The Government will continue to work closely with industry stakeholders and support them in reducing HFC consumption and shifting towards climate-friendly alternatives.
1Under the KA, Parties are obliged to progressively reduce HFC consumption according to a phase-down schedule:
- From 2024: Freeze at baseline
- From 2029: 90% of baseline
- From 2035: 70% of baseline
- From 2040: 50% of baseline
- From 2045: 20% of baseline
The baseline is defined as the average HFC consumption over 2020-2022 + 65% hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) baseline.